While earlier it was pointed out that bedwetting in teenagers or adults was engendered by deep psychological issues, poor bladder control and deep sleep, today studies have proved that this problem can directly be linked to hormonal imbalance in the child.
Bladder control in a person follows the same course as that bowel control. From birth to infancy, the baby generally urinates in a reflexive fashion when his bladder gets stretched to a certain extent. The bladder holds greater amount of liquid as the child grows older and by the time he is around 3 years he develops the muscular ability to hold urine in his bladder. He develops the awareness that he is urinating by the time he is around one and a half years old. Around 95 per cent of the children achieve daytime bladder control by the time they are 4 years old or more, whereas around 85 per cent of them achieve this control by the time they are 3 years old. It's the nighttime bladder control that is more difficult. Around 10 percent of 6 year old children and 20 percent of 5 year old children have nighttime bed wetting problems.
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Now, there are some people who take recourse of medicines for their children, subject to nighttime bedwetting. However, experts suggest that there are many children who don't respond to drugs like desmopressin at all- especially who have more salt or urea in their nighttime excretion. As per a study conducted by the University of Aarhus, Denmark, this might as well be triggered by prostaglandin hormone imbalance. However, if your child is not yet 5 or above, you should give it some time before jumping in to medicines.
It's also very important that the children are offered due mental support. It turns out to be an embarrassing situation for the grown-up child to wake up and realize that he has wetted his bed. So under these circumstances, it's important for parents to offer constant emotional support to their children making them realize that it's not their fault. Bringing about some minor changes in the nighttime activities might yield results here. Make it a point that the kid does not forget to go to the toilet the last thing before going to bed- try not to feed him too much water or other liquids before going to bed as well.
It is also suggested that you don't try overnight diapers if they're not completely dry. It is also believed that these diapers hinder your child's bladder control efforts. Work on his toilet training on a consistent basis instead. If everything fails, then consult a physician.
It's important to realize that bedwetting is no fault of your child. While it might be a genuine effect of hormonal imbalance, there are times when parents themselves act callous about their children's toilet training.